MonsterCrew
[color:=yellow][center:][i:][b:]Please log in or register before viewing unlimited contents in this forum. Thank you for visiting this forum. Enjoy here!!!

[img:]https://i11.servimg.com/u/f11/11/81/72/85/010.png[/img:][/b:][/i:][/center:][/color:]



 
PortalHomeFAQRegisterLog in

Share | 
 

 fuel injection

View previous topic View next topic Go down 
AuthorMessage
Guest
Guest



PostSubject: fuel injection   Sun Sep 13, 2009 11:44 pm

fuel injection atau Suntikan bahan api atau pancitan bahan api adalah sistem kenderaan yang bertugas mengangkut bahan api ke kenderaan selain daripada penggunaan karburetor. Dua jenis suntikan bahan api yang paling lazim adalam sistem suntikan bahan api petrol dan diesel. Suntikan bahan api membawa bahan api bertekanan tinggi dan menyemburkannya menjadi titisan halus ke ruang rongga masukan (bagi kes enjin petrol) ataupun secara terus ke dalam kebuk pembakaran (bagi kes enjin diesel) untuk menambah luas permukaan cecair bahan api bagi pembakaran yang lebih cekap. Sebelum ini, kebanyakan enjin petrol menggunakan karburetor tetapi sekarang boleh dikatakan hampir kesemua model kereta terkini menggunakan suntikan bahan api manakala karburetor hanya digunakan pada enjin-enjin yang kecil seperti pada motosikal.
Perbezaan fungsi yang paling ketara antara karburetor dan suntikan bahan api ialah suntikan bahan api menyembur bahan api kepada titisan yang sangat halus dengan mengepam bahan api secara paksaan ke muncung halus di bawah tekanan tinggi, sementara karburetor pula bergantung kepada tekanan vakum oleh udara masukan untuk menghantar bahan api.
Pemancit bahan api hanya terdiri daripada sebuah muncung serta injap; bahan api dihantar melalui pam bahan api atau bekas bertekanan.
Back to top Go down
Guest
Guest



PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Sun Sep 13, 2009 11:55 pm

Objectives

The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process, but it is a design decision how a particular system will be optimized. There are several competing objectives such as:
power output
fuel efficiency
emissions performance
ability to accommodate alternative fuels
reliability
driveability and smooth operation
initial cost
maintenance cost
diagnostic capability
range of environmental operation
Certain combinations of these goals are conflicting, and it is impractical for a single engine control system to fully optimize all criteria simultaneously. In practice, automotive engineers strive to best satisfy a customer's needs competitively. The modern digital electronic fuel injection system is far more capable at optimizing these competing objectives consistently than a carburetor. Carburetors have the potential to atomize fuel better (see Pogue and Allen Caggiano patents).
Back to top Go down
Guest
Guest



PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Sun Sep 13, 2009 11:56 pm

Benefits

Engine operation
Operational benefits to the driver of a fuel-injected car include smoother and more dependable engine response during quick throttle transitions, easier and more dependable engine starting, better operation at extremely high or low ambient temperatures, increased maintenance intervals, and increased fuel efficiency. On a more basic level, fuel injection does away with the choke which on carburetor-equipped vehicles must be operated when starting the engine from cold and then adjusted as the engine warms up.
An engine's air/fuel ratio must be precisely controlled under all operating conditions to achieve the desired engine performance, emissions, driveability, and fuel economy. Modern electronic fuel-injection systems meter fuel very accurately, and use closed loop fuel-injection quantity-control based on a variety of feedback signals from an oxygen sensor, a mass airflow (MAF) or manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor, a throttle position (TPS), and at least one sensor on the crankshaft and/or camshaft(s) to monitor the engine's rotational position. Fuel injection systems can react rapidly to changing inputs such as sudden throttle movements, and control the amount of fuel injected to match the engine's dynamic needs across a wide range of operating conditions such as engine load, ambient air temperature, engine temperature, fuel octane level, and atmospheric pressure.
A multipoint fuel injection system generally delivers a more accurate and equal mass of fuel to each cylinder than can a carburetor, thus improving the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution. Exhaust emissions are cleaner because the more precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the engine, and because exhaust cleanup devices such as the catalytic converter can be optimized to operate more efficiently since the exhaust is of consistent and predictable composition.
Fuel injection generally increases engine fuel efficiency. With the improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution, less fuel is needed for the same power output. When cylinder-to-cylinder distribution is less than ideal, as is always the case to some degree with a carburetor or throttle body fuel injection, some cylinders receive excess fuel as a side effect of ensuring that all cylinders receive sufficient fuel. Power output is asymmetrical with respect to air/fuel ratio; burning extra fuel in the rich cylinders does not reduce power nearly as quickly as burning too little fuel in the lean cylinders. However, rich-running cylinders are undesirable from the standpoint of exhaust emissions, fuel efficiency, engine wear, and engine oil contamination. Deviations from perfect air/fuel distribution, however subtle, affect the emissions, by not letting the combustion events be at the chemically ideal (stoichiometric) air/fuel ratio. Grosser distribution problems eventually begin to reduce efficiency, and the grossest distribution issues finally affect power. Increasingly poorer air/fuel distribution affects emissions, efficiency, and power, in that order. By optimizing the homogeneity of cylinder-to-cylinder mixture distribution, all the cylinders approach their maximum power potential and the engine's overall power output improves.
A fuel-injected engine often produces more power than an equivalent carbureted engine. Fuel injection alone does not necessarily increase an engine's maximum potential output. Increased airflow is needed to burn more fuel, which in turn releases more energy and produces more power. The combustion process converts the fuel's chemical energy into heat energy, whether the fuel is supplied by fuel injectors or a carburetor. However, airflow is often improved with fuel injection, the components of which allow more design freedom to improve the air's path into the engine. In contrast, a carburetor's mounting options are limited because it is larger, it must be carefully oriented with respect to gravity, and it must be equidistant from each of the engine's cylinders to the maximum practicable degree. These design constraints generally compromise airflow into the engine. Furthermore, a carburetor relies on a restrictive venturi to create a local air pressure difference, which forces the fuel into the air stream. The flow loss caused by the venturi, however, is small compared to other flow losses in the induction system. In a well-designed carburetor induction system, the venturi is not a significant airflow restriction.
Fuel is saved while the car is coasting because the car's movement is helping to keep the engine rotating, so less fuel is used for this purpose. Control units on modern cars react to this and reduce or stop fuel flow to the engine reducing wear on the brakes.
Back to top Go down
Guest
Guest



PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Sun Sep 13, 2009 11:57 pm

Detailed function

Typical EFI components



-Injectors
-Fuel Pump
-Fuel Pressure Regulator
-ECM - Engine Control Module; includes a digital computer and circuitry to communicate with sensors and control outputs.
-Wiring Harness
-Various Sensors (Some of the sensors required are listed here.)
-Crank/Cam Position: Hall effect sensor
-Airflow: MAF sensor, sometimes this is inferred with a MAP sensor
-Exhaust Gas Oxygen: Oxygen sensor, EGO sensor, UEGO sensor

[url=https://servimg.com/image_preview.php?i=161&u=13851055][img]https://i85.servimg.com/u/f85/13/85/10/55/inject10.gif[/img][/url]
Back to top Go down
Guest
Guest



PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Sun Sep 13, 2009 11:59 pm

Functional description

Central to an EFI system is a computer called the Engine Control Unit (ECU), which monitors engine operating parameters via various sensors. The ECU interprets these parameters in order to calculate the appropriate amount of fuel to be injected, among other tasks, and controls engine operation by manipulating fuel and/or air flow as well as other variables. The optimum amount of injected fuel depends on conditions such as engine and ambient temperatures, engine speed and workload, and exhaust gas composition.
The electronic fuel injector is normally closed, and opens to inject pressurized fuel as long as electricity is applied to the injector's solenoid coil. The duration of this operation, called the pulse width, is proportional to the amount of fuel desired. The electric pulse may be applied in closely-controlled sequence with the valve events on each individual cylinder (in a sequential fuel injection system), or in groups of less than the total number of injectors (in a batch fire system).
Since the nature of fuel injection dispenses fuel in discrete amounts, and since the nature of the 4-stroke-cycle engine has discrete induction (air-intake) events, the ECU calculates fuel in discrete amounts. In a sequential system, the injected fuel mass is tailored for each individual induction event. Every induction event, of every cylinder, of the entire engine, is a separate fuel mass calculation, and each injector receives a unique pulse width based on that cylinder's fuel requirements.
It is necessary to know the mass of air the engine "breathes" during each induction event. This is proportional to the intake manifold's air pressure/temperature, which is proportional to throttle position. The amount of air inducted in each intake event is known as "air-charge", and this can be determined using several methods. (See MAF sensor, and MAP sensor.)
The three elemental ingredients for combustion are fuel, air and ignition. However, complete combustion can only occur if the air and fuel is present in the exact stoichiometric ratio, which allows all the carbon and hydrogen from the fuel to combine with all the oxygen in the air, with no undesirable polluting leftovers. Oxygen sensors monitor the amount of oxygen in the exhaust, and the ECU uses this information to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio in real-time.
To achieve stoichiometry, the air mass flow into the engine is measured and multiplied by the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio 14.64:1 (by weight) for gasoline. The required fuel mass that must be injected into the engine is then translated to the required pulse width for the fuel injector. The stoichiometric ratio changes as a function of the fuel; diesel, gasoline, ethanol, methanol, propane, methane (natural gas), or hydrogen.
Deviations from stoichiometry are required during non-standard operating conditions such as heavy load, or cold operation, in which case, the mixture ratio can range from 10:1 to 18:1 (for gasoline). In early fuel injection systems this was accomplished with a thermotime switch.
Pulse width is inversely related to pressure difference across the injector inlet and outlet. For example, if the fuel line pressure increases (injector inlet), or the manifold pressure decreases (injector outlet), a smaller pulse width will admit the same fuel. Fuel injectors are available in various sizes and spray characteristics as well. Compensation for these and many other factors are programmed into the ECU's software.
Back to top Go down
A.C.A.B
Kaki Gaduh
Kaki Gaduh


Male Number of posts : 1710
Age : 32
Location : Felda Taib Andak, Johor
Car : Van Mayat

PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Fri Sep 18, 2009 3:48 pm

best la abg jai bnyk inpo2 berguna utk ditatap bersama
Back to top Go down
Guest
Guest



PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Fri Sep 18, 2009 6:34 pm

huhu..bru skit ba 2...sekadar ntuk pengetahuan bersma..
Back to top Go down
CLASSIC
Geng
Geng


Male Number of posts : 151
Age : 27
Location : P'NUMB'PUNK
Car : nissanPATROL

PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Wed Sep 30, 2009 10:39 pm

panjanggggggggg gilak
mcm time ako form4 form5
Back to top Go down
Guest
Guest



PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Wed Sep 30, 2009 10:58 pm

np ko time form4-form5?
Back to top Go down
CLASSIC
Geng
Geng


Male Number of posts : 151
Age : 27
Location : P'NUMB'PUNK
Car : nissanPATROL

PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Sun Oct 04, 2009 11:44 pm

pa lgi
bapa aku c kuar buku ajimat
potostat curi2 dri urg jipun
tpi disil
hhahahahaha
Back to top Go down
Guest
Guest



PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Mon Oct 05, 2009 12:25 am

tpt aq pun ada satu buku ful version dlm melayu..tebal gilak..pedih mata membaca
Back to top Go down
AD3R
Administrator
Administrator


Male Number of posts : 4748
Age : 31
Location : Japan Island
Car : Kancil Belalang Daihatsu L2s

PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Wed Oct 28, 2009 8:39 am

[b][i]wakakakakaka... :matai:[/i][/b]

_________________
[center][img]https://i89.servimg.com/u/f89/13/99/60/29/vip_mc12.png[/img][/center]
Back to top Go down
http://monstercrew1.forumotion.com
Customized
Geng
Geng


Male Number of posts : 1180
Location : SABAH
Car : KANCIL STENDET BUMPER HITAM 660

PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Wed Oct 28, 2009 9:57 am

apa lagi urang2 yang pakai kabretorrr tu... masuk lah efi.
Back to top Go down
AD3R
Administrator
Administrator


Male Number of posts : 4748
Age : 31
Location : Japan Island
Car : Kancil Belalang Daihatsu L2s

PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Wed Oct 28, 2009 11:00 am

[b][i]racun dyeorng semua.........[/i][/b]

_________________
[center][img]https://i89.servimg.com/u/f89/13/99/60/29/vip_mc12.png[/img][/center]
Back to top Go down
http://monstercrew1.forumotion.com
pirate
Moderator
Moderator


Male Number of posts : 2047
Location : Labuan-Sabah
Car : kancil stendet gaban

PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Wed Oct 28, 2009 5:55 pm

aku masih setia ngan keberata lagi..hehehehe

_________________
<a href=http://kcoc.forumms.net/advertise-your-add-here-now-f2/promosi-chery-for-life-t333.htm#5047>[img]http://i308.photobucket.com/albums/kk329/emanrina_kcar2/signaturechery.gif[/img]</a>


[b]MONSTERCREW LABUAN
KCAR OWNERS CLUB (KCOC)
[/b]

Lawati la laman web kami:

http://kcoc.forumms.net/
Back to top Go down
Sponsored content




PostSubject: Re: fuel injection   Today at 12:01 pm

Back to top Go down
 
fuel injection
View previous topic View next topic Back to top 
Page 1 of 1

Permissions in this forum:You cannot reply to topics in this forum
MonsterCrew :: MonsterCrew Tea House :: Car Performance :: Engine & Performance-
Jump to: